"The dangers of hashish: the latest scientific discoveries on cannabis"
This thesis was delivered publicly on September 5th, 2002 in the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacology in Rouen, France.
It can be downloaded by clicking here:
Thesis of Dr Chamayou (in French)
[ PDF : 4,1 Mo ]
22 GOOD THOUGHTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO A PATIENT BY A DOCTOR:
I - Leads to death of the neurons of the hippocampus – the structure of the brain which is affected by Alzheimer's – and the death of some young cells by apoptosis – or programmed cell death (PCD).
II - Leads to problems of all the types of memory.
III - Leads to a loss of ability to be organized.
IV - Increases by 4 the risk of serious mental disease. In some cases this happens with one use. The problem can occur at any time.
V - Increases by 2.7 the risk having a road accident and is responsible for 20% of all road accidents.
VI - Increases by 3 the risk of violent delinquency.
VII - One cannabis cigarette is equivalent to 7 tobacco cigarettes– because of the tar content and bronchodilatation.
VIII - Alters the expression of 49 genes in the neurons of chromosomes.
IX - Causes some cardiovascular diseases, such as arteritis, cardiac dysrhythmia, heart attack.
X - Causes an increased risk of throat and lung cancers.
XI - Weakens the defenses against germs, cancers, AIDS.
XII - Under the age of 35 there are no cases of throat cancer amongst non cannabis smokers.
XIII - Can lead to flash backs, i.e. being in a drugged state without having smoked drugs, this can happen up to 3 weeks after the last usage, in particular after an emotional reaction, at work or while driving.
XIV - Causes a syndrome that affects the prefrontal lobe, i.e. a dysfunction of the anterior part of the brain, which leads to:
inability to plan ahead (or to manage one's time: the patient is trapped in the present moment, which repeats itself)
inability to cooperate – to interact with others
inability to say no to one's urges
inability to realize that one is unable to plan, cooperate, master oneself. This is called anosognosia or ill awareness of one's own mental functioning
XV - Leads to a syndrome of demotivation, i.e. one loses the will to seek out new activities, which simply leads to inactivity. The patient merely repeats what is familiar to him
XVII - Leads to a tolerance which necessitates increasing the dosage. Leads to a dependency, i.e. one cannot stop taking it for a long time all the while thinking it is one's own choice to take some more. This dependency is physical because it is a dysfunction in the brain that causes it, but it is expressed purely psychologically. When one feels the need, unlike with other drugs, there is no somatic marks, i.e. body symptoms, such as nervosas, palpitations, abdominal pains, sweating, tremor
XVIII - Has unpredictable psychiatric effects over time depending on the individual:
XIX - Intolerance to frustration and inability to learn a decrease in the amount of effort applied to situations.
XX - If a rat has his cannabis receptors removed, he can not become addicted to heroin. If a rat is given cannabis, he starts drinking alcohol, whereas without cannabis, he will not drink any.
XXI - Its effects are often not detectable to those close to the patient nor to himself
XXII - It stays in the body for a long time:
Any psychotropic drug, be it legal - anxiolytic, tranquillizer, benzodiazepine, neuroleptic - or illegal - street drugs - leads to ill-being, depression and to suicide. See table with side effects of psychotropic drugs – Technical Information/Classification .
Voir le tableau des effets secondaires des drogues psychotropes (Fiches / Classification)
Yes, Alcohol is a sedative drug. In drinking regularly a large amount of alcohol, one becomes an alcoholic within a few years. Alcohol is characteristically able to potentialize the effect of all other drugs it is mixed with. If one mixes alcohol with another or others drugs, one can very rapidly become a drug-addict.
A joint is made out of pure cannabis or grass; or hashish mixed with tobacco.
Alcohol is a general term, which covers a wide variety of products:
wine, cider, beer, port, cognac, whisky, vodka are types of alcohol with various rates of alcoholic content ranging from 5 to 90 ° (active principles)
Cannabis works the same way: but when we talk about a joint of grass or hashish, there are more than 100 varieties and its T.H.C. rate (active principles) –ranges from 4% to 35% - goes unnoted.alcools aux taux variés de 5 à 90 degrés ( principes actifs)
No parent would lend his car to his child knowing he/she has not learnt to drive. It would also be unconscionable to let one’s teenager go out without having taught him/her what drugs are. Nowadays availability of these products is such that youth can procure them in all the places they frequent – educational establishments, parties, class dinners, rallies, sport clubs... Parents must inform themselves objectively and scientifically about the products so to educate their children on drugs and provide them with the arguments to refuse them. Let us remember that drug addiction doesn’t just happen to others!
In 1968, it contained from 0,6 to 6% of THC – TetraHydroCannabinol - principal active substance. In recent years through genetic modifications, hybrids and greenhouse cultures, it can contain up to 35% of THC. Nowadays, cannabis consumed by teenagers does not have anything in common with what their parents knew. For more information about cannabis see “Technical Information” section.
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